Blog post metadata Scholarship as Social Work | Hugh's Curriculum Vitae

Scholarship as Social Work

Every scholar has something that drives them. Sometimes is the love of knowledge, or it might be the quest to prove a point, in some cases it might be the context of the work environment. One interesting, to me, area of discussion in the scholarly literature talks about the relationship between activism, social work, and scholarship. In the field of linguistics (Citation: , ) (). The endangered languages issue as a hopeless cause. In Janse, M. & Tol, S. (Eds.), Language death and language maintenance: theoretical, practical and descriptive approaches. (pp. 1–13). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.240.03new (Citation: , , p. 11) (). We has seen the Enemy and it is Us: The Endangered Languages Issue as a Hopeless Cause. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 28(2). 11–20. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/11559 relates linguistic field work with social work calling it “linguistic social work”. In some cases he may not be wrong at all as much field work in the 20th century was conducted by missionaries. Missionaries often have a primary purpose which can often be cast as “social work”. But even outside of the context of the “missionary-linguist” field work is often conducted in contexts which follow human relationships. So even outside of “missionary-linguistics” much of the language-documentation movement has seen as its goal the up-lifting of ethno-linguistic communities by supporting their language development and community identity goals. For example, many point to Michael Krauss’s (Citation: et al., ) , , , , , & (). Endangered Languages. Language, 68(1). 1–42. https://doi.org/10.2307/416368 impassioned plea for linguists to take notice and action for the cause of the dissapearing ethno-linguistic minority communities. Krauss’s plea certainly was responded positively by many in the linguistic science community, e.g., (Citation: , ) (). Introduction. In Goodfellow, A. (Eds.), Speaking of Endangered Languages: Issues in Revitalization. (pp. 1–24). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.cambridgescholars.com/resources/pdfs/978-1-4438-1238-2-sample.pdf .

In my thesis (Citation: , , p. 151) (). Language Archive Records: Interoperability of Referencing Practices and Metadata Models  (M.A. Thesis) University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Retrieved from https://commons.und.edu/theses/3937/ I wrote the following as I built upon Newman’s observation and the role that language documentation has in the life-cycle or reuse of primary language artifacts created through the language documentation movement:

The effects of career academics’ desire to impact indicators demonstrating their scholarly influence should not be under appreciated. Let’s cut to the chase, “linguistic social work” (Citation: , ) (). The endangered languages issue as a hopeless cause. In Janse, M. & Tol, S. (Eds.), Language death and language maintenance: theoretical, practical and descriptive approaches. (pp. 1–13). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.240.03new (Citation: , , p. 11) (). We has seen the Enemy and it is Us: The Endangered Languages Issue as a Hopeless Cause. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 28(2). 11–20. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/11559 is not without value transfer or expectations. After working with a linguist, a language “community” might have a few resources in their language, a new orthography, or recordings of their traditional stories in an archive, but now the piper needs to be paid. The economic currency of academia is reference counts.

While I pondered, nearly napping, over many a quaint and curious article of forgotten scholarship… I asked the question “is linguistic social work” a term which may have links to other ideas about social activism in the academy? Other follow-on questions also ensued. These articulated themselves like: So what other ways are there to be an “activist” and a “researcher”? and also What other ideologies are there and what approaches might be related to the ideas of “activism”? after all what is this idea of “activism”? Is it not “research with social impact”? Social impact through activism seems to be asking the question: “Given the current state of social networks what activities need to be conducted to change the make-up of social networks or the power structure of the existing social networks? This begins to sound, at least to me, like the fundamental goals of counterinsurgency (COIN) operations.

It seems like a reasonable follow on question about activism and the academy then would be: Is activism any different than scholarship as diplomacy? Is scholarship as diplomacy evolved to the point where it is diplomacy to non-state actors? I might go out on a limb here but my knee jerk reaction is that, ultimately diplomacy to non-state actors must or should involve COIN (Counterinsurgency) methodology (or whatever COIN evolves into).

A couple of resources I found on these topics along with those cited above are presented in the bibliography below.

Bibliography

Acar & Coşkan (2020)
& (). Academic activism and its impact on individual-level mobilization, sources of learning, and the future of academia in Turkey. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 30(4). 388–404. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2455
Adam & Lerg (2015)
& (). Diplomacy on campus: the political dimensions of academic exchange in the North Atlantic. Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 13(4). 299–310. https://doi.org/10.1080/14794012.2015.1088327
Aggestam & Jerneck (2009)
(N.A.). (). The Strengths and Limits of Academic Deplomacy: The case of Bougainville. In Aggestam, K. & Jerneck, M. (Eds.), Diplomacy in Theory and Practice: Essays in hornor of Christer Jönsson. (pp. 258–281). Liber AB. Retrieved from https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:234185/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Askins (2009)
(). ‘That’s just what I do’: Placing emotion in academic activism. Emotion, Space and Society, 2(1). 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emospa.2009.03.005
Bayat (2000)
(). Social Movements, Activism and Social Development in the Middle East. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Retrieved from https://www.unrisd.org/80256b3c005bccf9/(httpauxpages)/9c2befd0ee1c73b380256b5e004ce4c3/$file/bayat.pdf
Brienza (2015)
(). Activism, Legitimation, or Record: Towards a New Tripartite Typology of Academic Journals. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 46(2). 141–157. https://doi.org/10.3138/jsp.46.2.02
Brossier (2017)
(). Senegal’s Arabic literates: from transnational education to national linguistic and political activism. Mediterranean Politics, 22(1). 155–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2016.1230944
Cancian (1993)
(). Conflicts between activist research and academic success: Participatory research and alternative strategies. The American Sociologist, 24(1). 92–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02691947
Compton, Dietrich, Smith & Johnson (1995)
, , & (). Animal Rights Activism and Animal Welfare Concerns in the Academic Setting: Levels of Activism and the Perceived Importance of Research with Animals. Psychological Reports, 76(1). 23–31. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1995.76.1.23
Cox (2015)
(). Scholarship and Activism: A Social Movements Perspective. Studies in Social Justice, 9(1). 34–53. https://doi.org/10.26522/ssj.v9i1.1153
Deodato & Borkowska (2014)
& (). Universities as actors and instruments in diplomacy. The academic soft power potential.. Valdai Disccusion Club. Retrieved from http://vid-1.rian.ru/ig/valdai/Paper08_eng.pdf
Doyle & Seal (2015)
& (). Indian Ocean futures: new partnerships, new alliances and academic diplomacy. Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, 11(1). 2–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/19480881.2015.1019994
Drohan (2017)
(). Brutality in an Age of Human Rights: Activism and Counterinsurgency at the End of the British Empire. Cornell University Press. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.ctt1w0ddc0
Flood, Martin & Dreher (2013)
, & (). Combining Academia and Activism: Common Obstacles and Useful Tool. Australian Universities’ Review, 55(1). 17–26. https://doi.org/10.3316/aeipt.196880
Goodfellow (2009)
(). Introduction. In Goodfellow, A. (Eds.), Speaking of Endangered Languages: Issues in Revitalization. (pp. 1–24). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.cambridgescholars.com/resources/pdfs/978-1-4438-1238-2-sample.pdf
Gottfried (1996)
Gottfried, H. (). Feminism and social change: bridging theory and practice. University of Illinois Press.
Gumperz (1962)
(). Types of Linguistic Communities. Anthropological Linguistics, 4(1). 28–40. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/30022343
Hale, Krauss, Watahomigie, Yamamoto, Craig, Jeanne & England (1992)
, , , , , & (). Endangered Languages. Language, 68(1). 1–42. https://doi.org/10.2307/416368
Hales, Dredge, Higgins-Desbiolles & Jamal (2018)
, , & (). Academic Activism in Tourism Studies: Critical Narratives from Four Researchers. Tourism Analysis, 23(2). 189–199. https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X15210313504544
Hawthorne-Steele, Moreland & Rooney (2015)
, & (). Transforming Communities through Academic Activism: An Emancipatory, Praxis-led Approach. Studies in Social Justice, 9(2). 197–214. https://doi.org/10.26522/ssj.v9i2.1152
Kara (2020)
(). Yeni̇ Bi̇r Yaklaşim Olarak Di̇lbi̇li̇msel Sosyal Hi̇zmet. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet, 31(4). 1703–1718. https://doi.org/10.33417/tsh.735805
Kivimäki (2016)
(). Can Peace Research Make Peace?: Lessons in Academic Diplomacy. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315570778
Mackinlay & Al-Baddawy (2008)
& (). Rethinking counterinsurgency. Rand National Defense Research Institute.
Maxey (1999)
(). Beyond boundaries? Activism, academia, reflexivity and research. Area, 31(3). 199–208. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.1999.tb00084.x
Newman (2003)
(). The endangered languages issue as a hopeless cause. In Janse, M. & Tol, S. (Eds.), Language death and language maintenance: theoretical, practical and descriptive approaches. (pp. 1–13). John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.240.03new
Newman (1998)
(). We has seen the Enemy and it is Us: The Endangered Languages Issue as a Hopeless Cause. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 28(2). 11–20. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/11559
(N.A.) (2010)
(N.A.). (). What is the difference between counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism?E-International Relations. Retrieved from https://www.e-ir.info/2010/12/21/what-is-the-difference-between-counter-insurgency-and-counter-terrorism/
Paterson III (2021)
(). Language Archive Records: Interoperability of Referencing Practices and Metadata Models  (M.A. Thesis) University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota. Retrieved from https://commons.und.edu/theses/3937/
Paul, Clarke & Grill (2010)
, & (). Testing the Approaches to Counterinsurgency. In Victory Has a Thousand Fathers. (pp. 31–82). RAND Corporation. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7249/mg964osd.11
Piven (2010)
(). Reflections on Scholarship and Activism. Antipode, 42(4). 806–810. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2010.00776.x
Pratt (2010)
(). What is the difference between counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism?. International Relations. 5. Retrieved from https://www.e-ir.info/pdf/6037
Rakoto & Rauchfuss (2017)
Rakoto, A. & Rauchfuss, G. (). Counterinsurgency: A Generic Reference Curriculum. NATO Graphics & Printing. Retrieved from https://www.nato.int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_2017_09/20170904_1709-counterinsurgency-rc.pdf
Sleeter (1996)
(). Multicultural education as social activism. State University of New York Press.
Smith (2007)
(). Social-Justice Activism in the Academic Industrial Complex. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 23(2). 140–145. Retrieved from https://muse.jhu.edu/article/223421
Torkunov (2019)
(). Diplomacy of the Academic Community: the Past and the Present. Mirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 63(9). 22–28. https://doi.org/10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-9-22-28
Tronchet (2017)
(). The Defeat of University Autonomy. French Academic Diplomacy, Mobility Scholarships and Exchange Programs (1880s–1930s). In Scott-Smith, G. & Tournès, L. (Eds.), Global Exchanges. Scholarship and Transnational Circulations in the Modern World. (pp. 50–63). Berghahn Books. Retrieved from https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02912082
Whitling (2011)
(). Relative Influence: Scholars, Institutions, and Academic Diplomacy in Post-War Rome. The Case of the German Libraries (1943–53). The International History Review, 33(4). 645–668. https://doi.org/10.1080/07075332.2011.620739
Whitling (2010)
(). The western way: Scademic diplomacy: Foreign academies and the swedish institute in rome, 1935-1953  (Thesis) European University Institute, Florence, Italy. https://doi.org/10.2870/64251
Wurm, Arka, Ross, Donohue, Evans, Nash, Pawley, Sidwell, Simpson, Tryon, Adams, Adelaar, Austin, Klamer & Koch (2010)
, , , , , , , , , , , , , & (). Endangered Austronesian and Australian Aboriginal languages: essays on language documentation, archiving, and revitalization. Pacific Linguistics College of Asia and the Pacific The Australian National University.
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Hugh Paterson III
Hugh Paterson III
Collaborative Scholar

My research interests include typological patterns in articulatory phonetics; User Experience design in language tools; and graph theory applied to language and linguistic resource discovery.

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